Understand the difference between LiFePO4 batteries and lithium batteries in one article

LiFePO4 batteries and lithium batteries are commonly used batteries for solar generators. They have different advantages, but gradually manufacturers prefer LiFePO4 batteries because LiFePO4 batteries are more advantageous in terms of safety and performance.

LiFePO4 solar generator
LiFePO4 solar generator

Next, let’s analyze the advantages and disadvantages of LiFePO4 batteries and lithium batteries and some applications.

Introduction of LiFePO4 battery

LiFePO4 battery refers to a lithium ion battery using LiFePO4 as a positive electrode material. The cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries mainly include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, lithium nickel oxide, ternary materials, LiFePO4, etc. Among them, lithium cobalt oxide is the cathode material used in the vast majority of lithium-ion batteries.

Advantages of LiFePO4 batteries

  1. The LiFePO4 battery has a long life and a cycle life of more than 2000 times. Under the same conditions, LiFePO4 batteries can be used for 7 to 8 years.
  2. Safe to use. LiFePO4 batteries have undergone strict safety tests and will not explode even in traffic accidents.
  3. Fast charging. Using a special charger, the battery can be fully charged after 40 minutes of 1.5C charging.
  4. The LiFePO4 battery is resistant to high temperature, and the hot air value of the LiFePO4 battery can reach 350 to 500 degrees Celsius.
  5. The LiFePO4 battery has a large capacity.
  6. The LiFePO4 battery has no memory effect.
  7. The LiFePO4 battery is environmentally friendly, non-toxic, non-polluting, has a wide range of raw material sources and is cheap.

Disadvantages of LiFePO4 batteries

  1. The tap density of the positive electrode of the LiFePO4 battery is small, and the density is generally around 0.8 to 1.3. Big size.
  2. The electrical conductivity is poor, the diffusion rate of lithium ions is slow, and the actual specific capacity is low when charged and discharged at high times.
  3. The low temperature performance of LiFePO4 battery is poor.
  4. The life of a single LiFePO4 battery is long, about 2000 times, but the life of a LiFePO4 battery pack is short, generally about 500 times.

Application areas of LiFePO4 batteries

  1. Large electric vehicles: buses, electric vehicles, sightseeing vehicles and hybrid vehicles, etc.;
  2. Light electric vehicles: electric bicycles, golf carts, small flat-panel battery vehicles, forklifts, cleaning vehicles, electric wheelchairs, etc.;
  3. Power tools: electric drills, chainsaws, lawn mowers, etc.;
  4. Remote control cars, boats, airplanes and other toys;
  5. Energy storage equipment for solar and wind power generation, such as solar generators, portable power stations;
  6. UPS and emergency lights, warning lights and miner’s lights (the best safety);
  7. Substitute 3V primary lithium battery and 9V nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride rechargeable battery in camera (same size);
  8. Small medical equipment and portable equipment, etc.

Introduction to Lithium Batteries

Lithium battery is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative electrode material and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution. Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. Therefore, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have now become the mainstream.

Advantages of Lithium Batteries

  1. The energy is relatively high. It has high storage energy density, which has reached 460-600Wh/kg, which is about 6-7 times that of lead-acid batteries;
  2. Long service life, the service life can reach more than 6 years, the battery with lithium ferrous phosphate as the positive electrode is charged and discharged at 1C (100% DOD), and there is a record of 10,000 times of use;
  3. The rated voltage is high (single operating voltage is 3.7V or 3.2V), which is approximately equal to the series voltage of 3 nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries, which is convenient to form a battery power pack; lithium batteries can be adjusted by a new type of lithium battery. The voltage is adjusted to 3.0V, which is suitable for the use of small electrical appliances;
  4. With high power tolerance, the LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles can reach 15-30C charge and discharge capacity, which is convenient for high-intensity startup acceleration;
  5. The self-discharge rate is very low, which is one of the most prominent advantages of the battery, generally less than 1%/month, less than 1/20 of the nickel-metal hydride battery;
  6. Light weight, the weight is about 1/6-1/5 of lead-acid products under the same volume;
  7. High and low temperature adaptability, can be used in the environment of -20℃–60℃, and can be used in the environment of -45℃ after technical treatment;
  8. Green and environmental protection, regardless of production, use and scrap, it does not contain or produce any toxic and harmful heavy metal elements and substances such as lead, mercury, and cadmium.
  9. Production basically does not consume water, which is very beneficial to my country, which is short of water. Specific energy refers to the energy per unit weight or unit volume. Specific energy is expressed in Wh/kg or Wh/L. Wh is the unit of energy, W is watt, h is hour; kg is kilogram (unit of weight), L is liter (unit of volume).

Disadvantages of Lithium Batteries

  1. Lithium primary batteries have poor safety and there is a danger of explosion.
  2. Lithium-ion batteries of lithium cobalt oxide cannot be discharged at large currents, are expensive and have poor safety.
  3. All lithium-ion batteries need to protect the circuit to prevent the battery from being overcharged and overdischarged.
  4. The production requirements are high and the cost is high.
  5. The use conditions are limited, and the use of high and low temperature is dangerous.

Application areas of lithium batteries

  1. Traffic power supply
  2. Electric energy storage power supply
  3. Mobile communication power
  4. New energy storage power
  5. Aerospace military power supply

The difference between LiFePO4 battery and lithium battery

LiFePO4 batteries are different from lithium batteries.

  1. LiFePO4 batteries are used as lithium-ion secondary batteries. Now the main direction is power batteries. Compared with NI-H and Ni-Cd batteries, they have great advantages.
  2. Lithium battery is a kind of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as positive electrode material and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution. The chemical properties of lithium metal are very active, which makes the processing, storage and use of lithium metal very demanding on the environment.
  3. LiFePO4 will not catch fire or explode when punctured, but the lithium battery will.
  4. LiFePO4 is resistant to overcharge to 100% and will not catch fire and explode; lithium batteries will degas and swell when the specified value is reached.

So LiFePO4 solar generator is safer and more durable than lithium battery solar generator.

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