Energy Storage Industry Overview
Energy storage refers to the use of special technologies and devices to store energy when energy is abundant, and release it when energy is insufficient, thereby adjusting the mismatch between energy supply and demand in terms of time and intensity.
Energy storage has existed since ancient times, but in different eras, different contradictions endow energy storage with different contents according to the dependence of human beings on different energy sources. Contemporary is mainly heat storage, hydrogen storage and electricity storage. Because electric energy is the most convenient form of energy to produce, transport, distribute and utilize, it has been widely used in modern production and life. In the field of energy storage, electricity storage has become the core content.
Compared with other energy forms, electric energy itself is not convenient for large-scale storage, so the basic idea of electric energy storage is to convert electric energy into other forms of energy, and then convert it back through other forms of energy when needed. Electricity storage technology is mainly divided into mechanical energy storage, electrochemical energy storage and electromagnetic energy storage.
Development history of the industry: the industry is expected to open up room for growth
At present, the energy storage industry is in the stage from small-scale pilot to large-scale application. With the support of domestic energy storage policies and the development of energy storage technology, the energy storage industry is expected to open up room for growth.
Industry development status
Pumped storage has an absolute advantage in the global energy storage market
According to CNESA statistics, by the end of 2020, the cumulative installed capacity of energy storage projects in operation around the world reached 191.1GW, a year-on-year increase of 3.4%.
In the global energy storage market, the cumulative installed capacity of pumped storage is the largest, accounting for 90.3%; the installed capacity of electrochemical energy storage is close behind, accounting for 7.5%; the installed capacity of molten salt heat storage accounts for 1.8% %; the proportion of installed capacity of compressed air energy storage and flywheel energy storage is less than 1%.
From 2015 to 2020, the cumulative installed capacity of pumped hydro storage in the world showed an increasing trend. By the end of 2020, the cumulative installed capacity of global pumped hydro storage was 172.5GW, a year-on-year increase of 0.9%. It has an absolute leading position in the global energy storage market.
The global installed capacity of electrochemical energy storage exceeded 10GW
Electrochemical energy storage is the energy storage technology with the widest application range and the greatest development potential. Therefore, the development of global energy storage technology is mainly concentrated in the field of electrochemical energy storage. By the end of 2020, the cumulative installed capacity of electrochemical energy storage reached 14.2GW, a year-on-year increase of 49.6%. Among them, the cumulative installed capacity of lithium-ion batteries is the largest, reaching 13.1GW, and the cumulative scale of electrochemical energy storage and lithium-ion batteries has both exceeded the 10GW mark for the first time.
In 2020, the new crown epidemic swept the world, although the energy storage industry was also severely affected, but after the downturn in the first half of the year, the market gradually recovered, and new energy storage projects were put into operation, especially the installed capacity of electrochemical energy storage projects. long. Among them, China, the United States and Europe occupy the dominant position in the global electrochemical energy storage market, and the three together account for 86% of the total scale of new electrochemical operations in the world.
New installed capacity moves closer to electrochemical energy storage
The current energy storage technology routes mainly include electrochemical energy storage, mechanical energy storage and electromagnetic energy storage.
Mechanical energy storage is mainly based on pumped water storage. At present, the technology is mature, the construction cost is relatively low, and the conversion efficiency is about 70%-80%. However, it has high requirements on the site selection environment, topographic conditions and hydrological environment, and the construction period is as long as 3- 5 years; electrochemical energy storage is mainly based on lithium batteries, lead-acid batteries and all-vanadium flow batteries. Among them, lithium battery energy storage has higher energy density, and the conversion efficiency can exceed 90%. The industrial chain is more mature. Compared with other electrochemical energy storage, it has more advantages in technology and cost; while electromagnetic energy storage is more suitable for power storage with short and rapid discharge time.