Compared with power batteries, energy storage batteries are more concerned with consistency, system cost and service life, and large capacity is more test of EMS performance. The difference between energy storage battery and power battery is mainly based on the difference in application scenarios and purpose of use, which leads to differences in product performance.
In terms of application scenarios: power batteries are mainly used in electric vehicles, which requires the highest possible requirements for system energy density and charging speed under the premise of safety, in order to achieve longer endurance and shorten charging time.
However, energy storage batteries usually do not need to be moved, have a huge space for use, and have lower requirements for energy density, but have different requirements for charging and discharging power according to application scenarios. In terms of battery capacity, large-capacity energy storage systems have higher requirements on battery consistency, system cost, and service life, and further test the performance of battery management systems and energy management systems.
The market share of power battery companies is increasing, and the head effect is significant. In 2016, the top ten energy storage battery suppliers were only CATL, Guoxuan Hi-Tech and AVIC Lithium, with small installed capacity. In 2020, Lishen Battery, Yiwei Lithium Energy and BYD were added to the top ten power battery suppliers. The share of enterprises in the energy storage market has further increased, and the scale advantage is significant. Among them, the power battery leader CATL has increased its shipments from 15MW to 588MW, with a five-year compound growth rate of 108%.
Accelerate the entry of core technologies into the energy storage market
Global power battery manufacturers are actively deploying the energy storage market. At present, the global power battery production capacity is mainly concentrated in Chinese, Japanese and Korean companies.
Domestic companies such as Ningde Times, Yiwei Lithium Energy, Guoxuan Hi-Tech, etc. have grasped the core technology through key nodes such as card-position energy storage batteries; BYD is the first to cut overseas by relying on the advantages of a complete industrial system. In the market, the market share of the energy storage segment in some countries is far ahead; Pineenergy Technology focuses on the home energy storage market, and the global home energy storage product shipments ranked third in 2019, second only to Tesla and LG Chem.
Overseas enterprises benefited from the advantages of early start and sound mechanism in the overseas energy storage market, and took the lead in completing the R&D layout of energy storage products.
The core technology helps power battery companies to establish advantages in the field of energy storage. From the perspective of technical reserves, CATL achieved a leading global competitive advantage by virtue of its perfect technical layout in structural innovation (CTP) and material system.
Structural innovations such as JTM expand the application scope of lithium iron phosphate. Guoxuan Hi-Tech also undertook key projects of the Ministry of Science and Technology to successfully develop high-nickel pouch cells above 300Wh/kg, while Funeng Technology has advanced pouch battery production capacity.
With the rapid expansion of the domestic lithium battery industry chain, local battery companies have gradually accelerated technology integration. Lithium iron phosphate batteries have become the first choice for energy storage batteries due to their low cost and high safety advantages.
Energy storage batteries are now commonly used as emergency battery backup power sources for various application emergency scenarios, such as power outages, outdoor use, temporary entertainment, and more.
Continuous innovation in energy storage battery technology
Na-ion batteries are expected to further explore the cost of energy storage batteries. In the context of global lithium resource reserves peaking and lithium carbonate prices continuing to rise, sodium-ion batteries are expected to complement lithium batteries and flexibly adapt to the application needs of all scenarios in fields such as energy storage and low-speed transportation.
The cathode material of CATL’s first sodium-ion battery uses Prussian white and layered oxide, and the capacity can reach 160mAh/g; the anode material is made of hard carbon material with high passenger capacity and easier for sodium ion deintercalation; in terms of battery performance, the single-cell battery The body energy density is as high as 160Wh/kg; the power can reach more than 80% after 15 minutes of charging at room temperature; the low temperature performance is excellent, with a discharge retention rate of more than 90% in a low temperature environment of -20°C, and the system integration efficiency can reach more than 80% In terms of industrial chain, it is expected that the industrial chain layout will be formed in 2023, and the comprehensive cost will be reduced by 30-40%, which is expected to further stimulate the inflection point of energy storage demand.
The high number of cycles indirectly reduces the cost of electricity per kilowatt hour, and the bottleneck of industrialization continues to break through.
The commissioning of long-cycle large-scale energy storage power stations will further link the problem of new energy consumption, provide various services such as peak regulation, frequency regulation, and demand response for power grid operation, realize grid peak shaving and valley filling, relieve peak power supply pressure, and ensure grid security. Provide support for stable operation.